They say a human body becomes lighter by twenty one grams, once it has ceased living. This is how much a soul weighs. Although no science would confirm this, and although not all people believe that God ever breathed on Adam, most of them probably feel at one point or another that there must somehow be an ‘essence’ of life, something more than a mere body, something that encapsulates all that we are.

This therefore then becomes a metaphor for the intangible, that which is there and makes something be more than a sum of its parts, but can never be isolated, never separated as an ingredient. Thus ‘soul’ is what we have left when everything else is gone, ‘soul’ is what can carry us through seemingly insurmountable difficulty, ‘soul’ is what makes music more than a string of disparate sounds, a performance more than an articulation of actions. Far more than a religious notion, ‘soul’ may represent our belief in everything that matters, everything that deserves to continue.

And continue it does, apparently forever. Whether it is the eternal cycle of reincarnation or the everlasting Kingdom, whether it is the heights of Mount Olympus or the vastness of interstellar space, mankind has always struggled and still struggles with concepts of the very durable and the very large.

Very rarely has mankind been able to cope without some concept – be it religious or political – of an ‘end’ or a ‘limit’, after which all will be constant, harmonious, balanced, and at rest. Yet, in the vastness of eternity the awe-inspiring and the frightening go hand in hand: what can be conceived as harmonious and in balance, can also be conceived as static and unchanging, a terrifying suspension with no end.

The notion of an ‘end’ or a ‘limit’ applies to politics insofar as most progressive ideologies and socioeconomic theories presuppose a certain ideal state of coexistence. In this respect they identify lived experience as an imperfect struggle, which should lead to something either as yet unlived or long abandoned.

This state that has either been left behind or would be reached in the hereafter, what comes after the ‘end’ – whether the end is the Judgement day or the Revolution – is, in terms of iconography, often identified with the Garden. The Garden is of course the place of plenty, and therefore ‘heaven’ as contrasted with a life which in most cases is full of want and deprivation. However, particularly in the Judaeo-Christian tradition, the Garden has a clear time-based function, as it signifies also the harmony and peace once enjoyed but now lost – a concept very close to notions of Arcadia.

Modern ecology often alludes to an Arcadia which mankind should strive to return to, although most of the time this movement is conceived as going forward and not backward. An interesting observation might be that ecology as a distinctly modern phenomenon is bound to the modernistic notion of progress, while at the same time it must allude to the notion of a ‘return’ to a time when harmony between all living things was a reality.

The notion that we have all been there, that even the suffering, the fallen or the dead were once in Arcadia is reminiscent of the 18th and 19th century reading of the famous memento mori: Et in Arcadia egoOnce I too lived in Arcadia. It spells out a call for a return to innocence, once prevalent but now lost. Innocence is identified with childhood. Childhood – however inaccurately – is endowed with a presumed lack of malice, and therefore represents that which we should all strive for. To be a child again is a powerful symbolic proposition, an appeal to what is conceived as a timeless morality, as yet not perverted by ablactation and civilization.

Yet, in the 20th century, things took on a distinctly different feel: “I exist even in Arcadia”, says Death, according to our current interpretation of the phrase. Death is now for us inextricably bound to Arcadia and our lost innocence. And, in fact, how could Death be absent from any dissertation on the hereafter?

What is death? Modern medicine conceives of death not so much as an event, but as a process. There is substantial difficulty in many cases to define the exact threshold, to say in certainty when precisely someone has ceased to live. This modern problem somehow echoes the way in which humans have faced death for millennia, equipping their dead for the journey ahead, putting them on boats and sailing them out to sea, or imagining that a boatman would do that – for a price. Death has been thought of as an evil, but also at times as a consolation, and it has always signified not only an end, but also a beginning. And although humans have always feared it, tried to resist it, or have even sought victory over it, they have also invented innumerable ways to glorify it, embrace it, celebrate it, or plainly come to terms with it.

Heaven, however, also embraces that eternal companion of death, love. From the concept of Christian love, becoming finally fulfilled in Paradise, to countless beliefs, pagan as well as monotheistic, that place carnal love at the centre of afterlife rewards, the idea of love has always been associated with the hereafter. Yet, the association works also in reverse: whether in the case of deep sexual gratification or love in the sense of true companionship, the more successful love-stories are always said to have reached ‘heaven’. One additional interesting element might be that although all religions have attempted to regulate carnal relations since time immemorial, love has the capacity of bringing to the concept of ‘heaven’ a very secular and temporal flavour.

And while the distinction between love and lust is often drawn, lust is perhaps the most important part. For lust is a residue, lust is what can be expressed in truly secular and temporal flavour as “pleasure”. And pleasure is really the meaning of heaven, or at least of heaven on earth. Contemporary life is constantly informed by the ‘heaven metaphor’: You can achieve heaven here on earth, right now! Your life is your project: improve yourself, get a degree, loose weight, wear sunglasses, choose your company, meet people, you look good in jeans, make friends, move flat, go on holiday, change your mobile phone, get an mp3 player, send your photo, get an suv, rent a speedboat, drink a cocktail, fly wherever, taxes included, get a double caramel machiato, also a fresh juice, authentic sushi, top design, take care of your skin, find the best biologically grown turkey, get a better job, vote for who you trust, get a mortgage, a large lcd screen, buy a house, travel, order a pizza, rent something by the sea, have an ice-cream, get married, go to the beach, king-sized bed, champagne by the pool, let’s dance, buy, choose, come here, be yourself, this is heaven, what do you want?

XYZ, March – June 2008

(Xenia Kalpaktsoglou, Poka-Yio,
Augoustinos Zenakos)

Dimitris Papaioannou & Zafos Xagoraris
Chus Martínez
Cay Sophie Rabinowitz
Nadja Argyropoulou
Diana Baldon
Christoforos Marinos

Andreas Aggelidakis

June 15 – October 4, 2009

Olympic Properties, Delta Falirou

Mark Aerial Waller, Alexis Akrithakis, Lara Almarcegui, Kenneth Anger, Apophenia, An Architektur*, Athanasios Argianas, Athanasios Argianas & Nick Laessing, Νikos Arvanitis*, Daniel Arsham, Michel Auder, Bruce Baillie, Mieke Bal, Barking Dogs United*, Thomas Bayrle, Zoe Beloff, Erick Beltran, Manfredi Beninati, Broadcast Group, Eloisa Cartonera*, Paul Chan, Adam Chodzko, Savvas Christodoulides*, Collective Actions, Jef Cornelis, Coti K., Roberto Cuoghi, Lydia Dampassina, Marianna Castillo Deball, Anastasia Douka, Dora Economou*, The Errands*, The Errorists, EVP, Angus Fairhurst, Harun Farocki, Filopappou Group*, Luke Fowler, Leon Frantzis*, Zoi Gaitanidou*, Dora García, Andrea Geyer, Michael Gibson*, Benita-Immanuel Grosser – Y8*, André Guedes*, Yiannoulis Halepas, Lothar Hempel, Dorothy Iannone, Infinite Library (Harris Epaminonda & Daniel Gustav Cramer), International Necronautical Society (INS),  Lakis and Aris Ionas / The Callas*, Tadeusz Kantor, Vassilis Karouk*, Andreas Kassapis, Dionisis Kavallieratos*, Em Kei, Reijo Kela, Anja Kirschner, Joachim Koester, Sandra Kranich*, Ferdinand Kriwet, Robert Kuśmirowski, Antti Laitinen*, Kalup Linzy*, Maria Loboda*, Panayiotis Loukas*, Tea Mäkipää*, Miltos Manetas, Domenico Mangano, Babette Mangolte, Kris Martin, Ursula Mayer, Tom McCarthy*, Malcolm McLaren, Ryan McNamara, Marc Nagtzaam, Rosalind Nashashibi & Lucy Skaer, Jennifer Nelson & Dimitris Kotsaras, Paul Noble, NSK*, OMIO*, Martin Oppel*, Lucy & Jorge Orta*, Anna Ostoya*, Adrian Paci, Palaio Faliro artists group, Christodoulos Panayiotou, Nina Papaconstantinou, Angelos Papadimitriou, Maria Pask, Nikos Gavriil Pentzikis, Mai-Thu Perret, Cesare Pietroiusti & Matteo Fraterno, Angelo Plessas*, Lisi Raskin*, Ry Rocklen, Cristina Lei Rodriguez, Willem de Rooij*, Kostas Roussakis*, Natascha Sadr Haghighian*, Saprophytes, Christoph Schlingensief, Lasse Schmidt Hansen, Carolee Schneemann,  Florian Schneider, Markus Selg, Yannis Skourletis, Robert Smithson, Société Réaliste*, Ettore Sottsass, Christiana Soulou, Michael Stevenson, Superflex, Jan Švankmajer, Christian Tomaszewski, Sue Tompkins, Alexandros Tzannis*, Unknown Artist, Kostis Velonis, Mark Wallinger, Water Girls Water Boys, Eyal Weizman (Centre for Research Architecture – Goldsmiths College)*, Adrian Williams*, Marie Wilson Valaoritis & Nanos Valaoritis, Krzysztof Wodiczko, Saskia Olde Wolbers, Hsuan Hsuan Wu, Ykon, Jakub Julian Ziolkowski

*37 premieres / new productions



General Coordinator
Nicky Tsianti

Assistant Curator
Eleanna Pontikaki

Communication Coordinator
Tatiana Verbi

Communication Design

Project Managers
Dimitris Karyofyllis
Glykeria Stathopoulou
Anna Varoucha

Venue Manager
Jason Kontovrakis

Curatorial Assistants
Yiannis Dalakas (team coordinator)
Rallou Avramidou
Antonia Houvarda
Antonis Kontrogiannis
Leda Kotronaki
Lena Lekkou
Mackenzie Schneider
Ioanna Zouli

Exhibition Design Assistants
Eirini Anthouli
Pavlos Bakagiannis
Dimitris Silaidos
Nana Stathi
Sotiris Vassiliou

Production Assistants
Christina Christodoulou
Sofia Pisimisi

Office Manager
Marilena Petridou

Yiota Arvaniti
Panayiotis Bredimas
Charlotte Duparc
Elisa Gigliotti
Lena Karra
Dilek Ozkan

Venue Constructions
KDI contract

Audiovisual Installation
Vidisquare AV Solutions and Video Rental

Savvas Haralambidis

Nail 2 Nail by VelosTrans S.A.
Move Art S.A.

LLOYD’S – G. Karavias & Associates

Coordinating Editor
Theophilos Tramboulis

Assistant to the Coordinating Editor
Kalliopi Koutroumpi

Ioanna Papadopoulou

Andreas Angelidakis
Nadja Argyropoulou
Diana Baldon
International Necronautical Society (INS)
Christopher Marinos
Chus Martínez
George Papadopoulos
Dimitris Papaioannou & Zafos Xagoraris
Cay Sophie Rabinowitz
Yiorgos Tzirtzilakis

Dimitris Saltabassis and Dimitris Filippoupolitis
Eleanna Panagou

Effi Yannopoulou
Michael Eleftheriou




Installation views from the 2nd Athens Biennale 2009 HEAVEN © Athens Biennale